Passive voice consists of a syntactic transformation in which subject, object(s) and the verb are involved.
The passive voice is used when focusing on the person or thing affected by an action.
* The Passive is formed: Passive Subject To Be Past Particple
* It is often used in business and in other areas where the object of the action is more important than those who perform the action.
We have produced over 20 different models in the past two years.
Over 20 different models have been produced in the past two years.
* If the agent (the performer of the action) is important, use “by”
John Irving wrote “The World According to Garp” in the 80’s
“The World According to Garp” was written in the 80’s by John Irving.
* Only verbs that take an object can be used in the passive.
EASY 3 (PRESENT PERFECT)
THE CHOKING DOG (from University of Victoria)
Watch this video and answer the questions below:
What would you do if you won 10 million dollars?
….would buy an apartment in NY?
…. would pay off all his/her bills?
…. would give it to charities?
….would put all the money in the bank?
…. would say “good-bye New Jersey”?
Situations that are always true if something happens.
This use is similiar to, and can usually be replaced by, a time clause using ‘when’ (example: When I am late, my father takes me to school.) Both verbal forms are in the present simple tense.
If I am late, my father takes me to school.
She doesn’t worry if Jack stays out after school.
Universal truths: If you heat water at 100ºC, it boils and evaporates.
Often called the “real” conditional because it is used for real – or possible – situations. These situations take place if a certain condition is met. Conditional 1 is formed by the use of the present simple in the if clause followed by a comma will verb (base form) in the result clause.
In the conditional 1 we often use unless which means ‘if … not’. In other words, ‘…unless he hurries up.’ could also be written, ‘…if he doesn’t hurry up.’.
If it rains, we won’t go out tonight.
He will fail the test unless he studies harder.
Often called the “unreal” conditional because it is used for unreal – impossible or improbable – situations. This conditional provides an imaginary result for a given situation. Conditional 2 is formed by the use of the past simple in the if clause followed by a comma would verb (base form) in the result clause
The verb ‘to be’, when used in the 2nd conditional, is always conjugated as ‘were’. (In fact it is a reminder of the subjunctive in English. Anyway, in colloquial English most people use the “singular” form `was`)
If he studied more, he would pass the exam.
If I were rich, I would be the happiest man in the world.
Often referred to as the “past” conditional because it concerns only past situations with hypothetical results. Used to express a hypothetical result to a past given situation. Conditional 3 is formed by the use of the past perfect in the if clause followed by a comma would have past participle in the result clause.
If he hadn’t drunk any alcohol last night, I wouldn´t have had the accident”
Jane would have found a new job if she had stayed in Boston.
You can test your knowledge of conditionals by taking the Conditionals Quiz at esl.about.com