Posted in Bachillerato, Grammar

REPORTED SPEECH


Reported Speech (Indirect Speech)

If we report what another person has said, we usually do not use the speaker’s exact words (direct speech), but reported (indirect) speech. Therefore, you need to learn how to transform direct speech into reported speech. The structure is a little different depending on whether you want to transform a statement, question or request.

A. Statements

When transforming statements, check whether you have to change:

1. pronouns
2. present tense verbs (3rd person singular)
3. place and time expressions
4. tenses (backshift)

Type Example
direct speech “I speak English.”
reported speech
(no backshift) He says that he speaks English.
reported speech
(backshift) He said that he spoke English.

→ more on statements in reported speech HERE

B. Questions

When transforming questions, check whether you have to change:

pronouns
present tense verbs
(3rd person singular)
place and time expressions
tenses
(backshift)

Also note that you have to:

transform the question into an indirect question
use the interrogative or if / whether

Type Example
with interrogative direct speech “Why don’t you speak English?”
reported speech He asked me why I didn’t speak English.
without interrogative direct speech “Do you speak English?”
reported speech He asked me whether / if I spoke English.

→ more on questions in reported speech HERE

C. Requests / Commands

When transforming questions, check whether you have to change:

pronouns
place and time expressions

Type Example
direct speech “Carol, speak English.“
reported speech He told Carol to speak English.

→ more on requests in reported speech HERE

ACTIVITIES.
STATEMENTS:
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/reported-speech/exercises?03
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/reported-speech/exercises?04

QUESTIONS:
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/reported-speech/exercises?05
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/reported-speech/exercises?06

REQUESTS:
A) AFFIRMATIVE: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/reported-speech/exercises?07
B) NEGATIVE: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/reported-speech/exercises?08

MIXED TYPES:
Exercise 1
Exercise 2